I’m no longer surprised when native English speakers (Americans) cannot define or locate in a sentence any of the eight parts of speech used in English. It just reflects the sorry state of education in the U.S.
The educational establishment starting in the 1960s or so developed this "drill and kill" mentality that rejected the teaching of anything that needs to be memorized and repeated–and then put into action with worksheets and quizzes. Supposedly, if you "drill," you "kill" the students’ precious little creative minds. Unfortunately, you also end up not teaching them anything.
Anyway, enough on that, here are the eight parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
I found a neat site for you to "drill and kill" yourself learning these. No, really, it teaches and then quizzes you: ESLUS.com .